environment. I love the diversity of my job. Every day is different. Most tasks require creativity. Now that I am an experienced naturalist, I have the freedom to plan my own day and make decisions about the types of programs that we offer at Peninsula.
In my first naturalist job, I spent four out of five days leading school field trips and visiting classrooms. As a state park naturalist I still work with students, but more often lead programs like bird walks, nature crafts, outdoor skills, and trail hikes. I also find myself increasingly involved in management decisions. For example, sometimes the park naturalist is the person who knows where rare orchids grow or where ravens nest. When decisions are made about cutting trees, building trails, or creating more campsites. naturalists are asked to give the “ecological perspective.”
Perhaps the grossest thing I’ve done as a naturalist is to boil animal skulls. Visitors like seeing bones and skins-at least after they have been cleaned up! Once, our nature center needed more skulls. A trapper gave me muskrat, raccoon and fox skulls but I had to clean them. First, I boiled the skin and meat off. Boy, did that stink! Then I used dissecting tools and old toothbrushes to clean out the eyeballs. Finally, I soaked the skulls in a bleach solution. I’ve had some embarrassing experiences, too. On my first hike as Peninsula’s new naturalist, I was so excited that I identified a white pine tree as a red pine tree! That’s quite a mistake since the trees are so easy to tell apart. White pine needles are in bundles of five and red pine needles are in bundles of two.
Not all state parks are as busy or as big as Peninsula. Not all park naturalists spend the seasons as I do. Nevertheless, park naturalists share certain common interests and responsibilities: A park naturalist might notice that branches of a red maple growing in a field reach out to the side while those of a red maple in a thick forest reach up, and wonder why the trees look different. A naturalist makes things happen. It might be working with workers to clean up part of a river. Park naturalists share knowledge in different ways, but all of them communicate with people. A love of learning--from other people, from plants and animals, from books, and more-is an essential quality. Most naturalists don’t work in places of rare beauty. Many work in city parks or in places that show “wear and tear.” If you can wonder about an inchworm, a juniper bush, or a robin and cause others to wonder, too, then you are ready to become a park naturalist.
If you think you want to become a park naturalist, do the following:
Explore your home landscape. Knowing how people have shaped the land where you live-and how the land has shaped them-will lend a comparison that will serve you well.
Start a field sketch book.Sketch what you see, where and when. The reason is not to practice art skills (though you may discover you have a talent) but, rather, to practice observation skills.
Go to college. You will need a 4-year degree. There are several academic routes that lead to the naturalist’s road. I have found ornithology, plant taxonomy and human growth and development to be among my most helpful courses.
Listen and learn. A college degree is like a ticket. It lets you board the plane but is only the beginning of the journey. Look and listen to those who have already traveled the road for ideas, knowledge and inspiration.
Directions: Reading the following and answer questions by finding a subtitle for each of the marked parts or paragraphs. There are two extra items in the subtitle. Mark your answer on ANSWER SHEET . (10 points)
A. The consequence of losing bones
B. A better lab than on earth
C. Two different cases
D. Multiple effects form weightlessness
E. How to overcome weightlessness
F. Factors that are not so sure
During weightlessness, the forces within the body undergo dramatic change. Because the spine is no longer compressed, people grow taller. The lungs, heart and other organs within the chest have no weight, and as a result, the rib cage and chest relax and expand. Similarly, the weights of the liver, kidneys, stomach and bowels disappear. One astronaut said after his flight: “You feel your guts floating up. I found myself tightening my belly, sort of pushing things back。”
Meanwhile muscles and bones come to be used in different ways. Our muscles are designed to support us when stand or sit upright and to move body parts. But in space, muscles used for support on the ground are no longer needed for that purpose; moreover, the muscles used for movement around a capsule differ from those used for walking down a hall. Consequently, some muscles rapidly weaken. This doesn’t present a problem to space travelers as long as they perform only light work. But preventing the loss of muscle tissue required for heavy work during space walks and preserving muscle for safe return to Earth are the subject of many current experiments。
Studies have shown that astronauts lose bone mass from the lower spine, hips and upper leg at a rate of about 1 percent per month for the entire duration of their time in space. Some sites, such as the heel, lose calcium faster than others. Studies of animals taken into space suggest that bone formation also declines。
Needless to say, these data are indeed cause for concern. During space flight, the loss of bone elevates calcium levels in the body, potentially causing kidney stones and calcium crystals to form in other tissues. Back on the ground, the loss of bone calcium stops within one month, but scientists do not yet know whether the bone recovers completely: too few people have flown in space for long periods. Some bone loss may be permanent, in which case ex-astronauts will always be more prone to broken bones。
These questions mirror those in our understanding of how the body works here on Earth. For example, elderly women are prone to a loss of bone mass. Scientists understand that many different factors can be involved in this loss, but they do not yet know how the factors act and interact; this makes it difficult to develop an appropriate treatment. So it is with bone loss in space, where the right prescription still awaits discovery。
Many other body systems are affected directly and indirectly. One example is the lung. Scientists have studied the lung in space and learned much they could not have learned in laboratories on earth. On the ground the top and bottom parts of the lung have different patterns of air flow and blood flow. But are these patterns the result only of gravity, or also of the nature of the lung itself? Only recently have studies in space provided clear evidence for the latter. Even in the absence of gravity, different parts of the lung have different levels of air flow and blood flow。
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新航道好轻松考研首席学术专家。上世纪八十年代北京师范大学翻译 学硕士，曾任国际关系学院副教授，有 30 多年的英语教学与翻译经验， 曾多次被评为优秀教师；出版著作与译作 10 多部；1997 年开始从事 考研培训，对考研英语有深入独到的研究，并曾多次参加全国硕士研 究生英语试卷阅卷工作；独创考研英语“四步定位翻译法”、“词汇四通 记忆法”等，著有《考研英语十年真题点石成金》《考研英语核心词汇 笔记》《考研英语英译汉四步定位翻译法》等畅销书。