since 1996. Most of his group’s money comes from transport and logistics, with a strong position in Africa, and from petrol distribution in France. Mr Bolloré has also made billions from financial investments such as in Rue Imperiale, a holding company. Autolib will be keenly watched throughout the car industry. It is the first largescale city carsharing service to use only electric vehicles from the outset; a scheme in Ulm in Germany, by contrast, started with diesel vehicles. Running Autolib could mean shouldering substantial losses for the Bolloré Group. Mr Bolloré was not expected to win the contract, but did so mainly because he offered low rental charges for drivers.
[F] Mr Bolloré’s LMP batteries are said to be more stable when being charged and discharged, which is when batteries come under most strain. Just two European carmakers have seen the batteries, which are made only by the Bolloré Group. One carindustry executive says that though the LMP technology is attractive from a safety point of view, the batteries have to be heated up to function-which takes power and makes them less convenient to use.
[G] Mr Bolloré’s technology is about to hit the road. In 2010 his group won a contract to run Autolib, a carsharing scheme designed by Bertrand Delane, the mayor of Paris, which will put 3,000 electric vehicles on the city’ s streets along with 1,120 stations for parking and recharging. Construction of the stations started in the summer, and Mr Bolloré will begin testing the service on October 1st before opening it to the public in December. Rechargeable batteries are now an important technology for the global car industry as it starts to make ever more electric and hybrid vehicles. Renault, a French manufacturer, is alone investing 4 billion ($5.6 billion) in a range of electric models which it will start selling this autumn. Many producers will unveil new electric vehicles next week when the Frankfurt Motor Show opens.
Directions: For question 1-5, choose the most suitable paragraphs from the list A-G and fill them into the numbered boxes to form a coherent text. Paragraphs A and D have been correctly placed.
[A] The contest has been held in anticipation of a new era of pylon building. By 2020, a quarter of the country’s current generating capacity will need replacing; the government hopes the new supply will come from renewable sources such as onshore and offshore wind farms. Today’s offshore capacity is just 7% of ministers’ targets for the end of the decade-and all of the new generation out to sea will need to land transmission cables ashore. The existing electricity grid is in the wrong place for many of these new sources of power. That creates a paradox: trying to save the world by cutting carbon emissions means scarring particular bits of it by dragging new power lines through scenic countryside.
[B] This is an old problem. The launch of Britain’s national electricity grid in 1933 was decried for desecrating the landscape. More recently, the location of wind farms has prompted similar debates. The difficulty with pylons is that they go everywhere. Scotland has had nearly five years of disputes over the planned 600pylon upgrade of a transmission line running from Beauly in the Highlands to the central belt where more electricity is used. The same clashes will now play out in England and Wales. A new planning commission was set up in 2009 to speed up the glacial pace of infrastructure decisionmaking. But weighing economic demands against beauty remains a thorny and potentially time-consuming job.
[C] Opponents of towering pylons say the answer is to bury power lines: at present only 950km of Britain’s 13,000km of highvoltage cable runs underground, most of it in urban areas. But sinking wires, which means clearing a corridor 17m to 40m wide and cannot be done in all terrains, carries an environmental toll too. “You are effectively sterilising land use in the area,” says Richard Smith of National Grid; no planting, digging or building is allowed. That makes installing subsurface cables 12 to 17 times as pricey as overhead lines, according to National Grid (they also need replacing sooner). Since consumers pay for this through their electricity bills, everyone would have to fork out to protect the views and house prices of a few people.
[D] So finding a new shape for pylons may be only one aspect of the coming power rows. But it will be a tricky one. Typically the best designs combine elegance with utility. Yet rather than being a feature in itself, the optimal pylon blends in with nature. That’s a tough task for 20 tons of steel, however impressively shaped.
[E] The skeletal, lattice design of Britain’s electricity pylons has changed little since the first one was raised in 1928. Many countries have copied these “striding steel sentries”, as the poet Stephen Spender called them; more than 88,000 now march across the country’s intermittently green and pleasant land.
[F] Now six new models are vying to replace these familiar steel towers. The finalists in a governmentsponsored competition to design a new pylon include a single shard spiking into the sky and an arced, open bow. After a winner is picked in October, National Grid, which runs the electricitytransmission network, will decide whether to construct it.
[G] But the price of despoiling pretty scenery is hard to calculate. The risk is that the cost of damaging the landscape is ignored because it is not ascribed a monetary value, says Steve Albon, coauthor of a governmentcommissioned report on how much the natural environment contributes to Britain’s economy. As yet, though, no one has found an easy or accepted measure of this worth to help make decisions.
Directions: For question 1-5, choose the most suitable paragraphs from the list A-G and fill them into the numbered boxes to form a coherent text. Paragraphs C and E have been correctly placed.
[A] Nor can it buy companies as freely as postal services in Europe, Canada or Asia have been doing for the past decade. Many European countries, as well as New Zealand and Japan, have already privatised or liberalised their postal services. Combined, foreign posts now get most of their revenue from new businesses such as retailing or banking for consumers, or warehousing and logistics for companies.
[B] THE US Postal Service has an unofficial creed that harks back to Herodotus, who was admiring the Persian Empire’s stalwart messengers. Its own history is impressive too, dating to a royal license by William and Mary in 1692, and including Benjamin Franklin as a notable postmaster, both for the crownand then for the newly independent country. Ever since, the post has existed “to bind the Nation together”.
[C] Quasiindependent since 1970, the post gets no public money. And yet it is obliged (as FedEx and UPS are not) to visit every mailbox, no matter how remote, six days a week. This has driven the average cost of each piece of mail up from 34 cents in 2006 to 41 cents. Yet the post is not allowed to raise prices (of stamps and such) willynilly; a 2006 law set formulas for that. So in effect, the post cannot control either its costs or its revenues.
[D] So America’s post is looking for other solutions. It is planning to close post offices; up to 3,653, out of about 32,000. This month it announced plans to lay off another 120,000 workers by 2015, having already bidden adieu to some 110,000 over the past four years (for a total of about 560,000 now). It also wants to fiddle with its workers’ pensions and health care.
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好轻松考研专注于国内大学生高端考研培训。以“高能高分”为教育理念，倡导考生遵循学习的基本规律，稳扎稳打，以轻松的心态来学习。好轻松考研以“学术、励志、激情”为教学风格，倡导教师学术过硬，注重鼓励引导，充满激情的为考生授课。好轻松考研以独创英语学习领域 4R 个性化培训为服务体系，确保考生达成理想的学习效果。
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新航道好轻松考研首席学术专家。上世纪八十年代北京师范大学翻译 学硕士，曾任国际关系学院副教授，有 30 多年的英语教学与翻译经验， 曾多次被评为优秀教师；出版著作与译作 10 多部；1997 年开始从事 考研培训，对考研英语有深入独到的研究，并曾多次参加全国硕士研 究生英语试卷阅卷工作；独创考研英语“四步定位翻译法”、“词汇四通 记忆法”等，著有《考研英语十年真题点石成金》《考研英语核心词汇 笔记》《考研英语英译汉四步定位翻译法》等畅销书。