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2018考研英语阅读理解真题及解析(6)

2020-07-10 15:58:00 来源:互联网 作者:考研小编
摘要:关于考研英语的复习,考研圈有一句话,叫得阅读者得天下。不论是英语一还是英语二,阅读理解所占分值最大,但是这一次往往又是很多同学的短板,所以大家要加强阅读理解的练习,这样就能分析出自己的错误点,下面好轻松考研小编给大家带来了2018考研英语阅读理解真题及解析,供大家练习。

  Specialization canbe seen as a response to the problem of an increasing accumulation ofscientific knowledge. By splitting up the subject matter into smaller units,one man could continue to handle the information and use it as the basis forfurther research. But specialization was only one of a series of relateddevelopments in science affecting the process of communication. Another was thegrowing professionalisation of scientific activity。>>对考研英语有疑问?点击咨询

  No clear-cut distinction can be drawn between professionals andamateurs in science: exceptions can be found to any rule. Neverthelss, the word“amateur” does carry a connotation that the person concerned is not fully integratedinto the scientific community and, in particular, may not fully share itsvalues. The growth of specialization in the nineteenth century, with itsconsequent requirement of a longer, more complex training, implied greaterproblems for amateur participation in science. The trend was naturally mostobvious in those areas of science based especially on a mathematical orlaboratory training, and can be illustrated in terms of the development ofgeology in the United Kingdom。

  A comparison of British geological publications over the lastcentury and a half reveals not simply an increasing emphasis on the primacy ofresearch, but also a changing definition of what constitutes an acceptableresearch paper. Thus, in the nineteenth century, local geological studiesrepresented worthwhile research in their own right; but, in the twentiethcentury, local studies have increasingly become acceptable to professionalsonly if they incorporate, and reflect on, the wider geological picture.Amateurs, on the other hand, have continued to pursue local studies in the oldway. The overall result has been to make entrance to professional geologicaljournals harder for amateurs, a result that has been reinforced by thewidespread introduction of refereeing, first by national journals in thenineteenth century and then by several local geological journals in thetwentieth century. As a logical consequence of this development, separatejournals have now appeared aimed mainly towards either professional or amateurreadership. A rather similar process of differentiation has led to professionalgeologists coming together nationally within one or two specific societies,where the amateurs have tended either to remain in local societies or to cometogether nationally in a different way。

  Although the process of professionalisation and specialization wasalready well under way in British geology during the nineteenth century, itsfull consequences were thus delayed until the twentieth century. In sciencegenerally, however, the nineteenth century must be reckoned as the crucialperiod for this change in the structure of science。

  21. The growth of specialization in the 19th century might be moreclearly seen in sciences such as _________。

  [A]sociology and chemistry

  [B]physics and psychology

  [C]sociology and psychology

  [D]physics and chemistry

  22. We can infer from the passage that _________。

  [A]there is little distinction between specialization andprofessionalisation

  [B]amateurs can compete with professionals in some areas of science

  [C]professionals tend to welcome amateurs into the scientificcommunity

  [D]amateurs have national academic societies but no local ones

  23. The author writes of the development of geology to demonstrate_________。

  [A]the process of specialization and professionalisation

  [B]the hardship of amateurs in scientific study

  [C]the change of policies in scientific publications

  [D]the discrimination of professionals against amateurs

  24. The direct reason for specialization is _________。

  [A]the development in communication

  [B]the growth of professionalisation

  [C]the expansion of scientific knowledge

  [D]the splitting up of academic societies

  真题答案解析

  21. The growth of specialization in the 19th century might be moreclearly seen in sciences such as_________.

  19世纪专业化的发展在_______等科学领域容易看的更加清楚。

  [A]sociology and chemistry 社会学和化学

  [B]physics and psychology 物理学和心理学

  [C]sociology and psychology 社会学和心理学

  [D]physics and chemistry 物理学和化学

  【答案】 D

  【考点】 事实细节题。

  【分析】 根据题干定位到第二段第三、四句,文中提到“专业化要求更长时间、更复杂的培训,给参与科学活动的业余人士带来了更大的问题。在特别是以数学和实验为基础的那些科学领域里,这一倾向自然表现得最为明显,英国地质学领域的发展充分地说明了这一点”。在这四个选择项中,[A]、[B]、[C]都提到了“文科学科”,只有[D]选项中的“物理学和化学”均是“以数学和实验作为基础的科学”,因此可以推断[D]选项符合原文,是正确答案。

  22. We can infer from the passage that _____. 从本文可以推断出______。

  [A] there is little distinction between specialization andprofessionalization

  在专业化和职业化之间几乎没有区别

  [B] amateurs can compete with professionals in some areas ofscience

  业余人士在某些领域和专业人士可以竞争

  [C] professionals tend to welcome amateurs into the scientificcommunity

  专业人士看上去是欢迎业余人士加入科学团体的

  [D] amateurs have national academic societies but no local ones

  业余人士看起来只有全国性的学术协会,但是没有地方性的学术协会

  【答案】 B

  【考点】 推断题。

  【分析】 选项[A]中提到“专业化和职业化之间几乎没有区别”,而实际上,它们指的是“不同的领域和方向”,“specialization”针对“研究对象”,“professionalization”针对“研究者”,因此可以排除。选项[C]说“专业人士看上去是欢迎业余人士加入科学团体”这种说法也是不对的,因为专业化的发展使得业余人士受到排挤。[D]选项明显错误,因为文中提到“既有全国性的学术协会,又有地方性的学术协会”。第三段指出“局部的研究(local studies)只有在能被纳入并反映出更广泛研究框架的时候,才为专业人士所接受”。这说明,某些方面的研究是为专业研究者所认可的,同时说明了业余研究与职业研究并存的状况。既然是并存的,就说明在某个地方是可以竞争的。因此选择[B]。

  23. The author writes of the development of geology to demonstrate______。

  作者提到地质学发展是为了说明______。

  [A] the process of specialization and professionalization

  专业化和职业化的过程

  [B] the hardship of amateurs in scientific study

  业余人士在科学研究方面的艰辛

  [C] the change of policies in scientific publications

  科技出版政策的变化

  [D] the discrimination of professionals against amateurs

  职业人士对业余人士的歧视

  【答案】 A

  【考点】 作者目的题。

  【分析】 根据题干“地质学发展”定位到第二段末尾和第三段,第三段主要讲的是地质学的发展;以及第四段第一句“虽然职业化和专业化过程早在19世纪已在英国的地质学领域展开,但直到20世纪我们才看到其全面影响”,因此可以判断这里的正确答案是[A]。[B]选项认为是“业余研究者在科学研究方面的艰辛”。例子中虽然提到了专业化给业余研究者带来的不利影响. 但是从整体来看,那个不是重点,地质学的例子主要是为了说明“专业化和职业化过程的形成及其影响”。

  24. The direct reason for specialization is _______. 造成专业化的直接原因是_______。

  [A] the development in communication 交流的发展

  [B] the growth of professionalization 职业化的发展

  [C] the expansion of scientific knowledge 科学知识的扩展

  [D] the splitting up of academic societies 学术团体的分化

  【答案】 C

  【考点】 事实细节题。

  【分析】 本题要求考生找出现象间的因果关系。全文开篇就指出,“专业化过程可以被看做是对日益积累的科学知识的反应”。这句话的含义实际上就是“科学知识的积累促进了专业化”。因此可以判定[C]是正确选项。[A]选项是不对的,因为根据其中的“交流”一词可以定位到第一段,文中提到“专业化影响了交流过程”,而不是反之。[B]不对,“专业化是随着知识的进一步分类而产生的,是和职业化同时产生的”,不是其成因。[D]为专业化的结果。

  考研英语中阅读的占比很大,大家不要放松对考研英语的复习,争取在最后的一百多天里轻松上岸。有任何考研方面的问题都可以来咨询好轻松考研小编哦。

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