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2018考研英语阅读理解真题及解析(4)

2020-07-10 16:01:00 来源:互联网 作者:考研小编
摘要:关于考研英语的复习,考研圈有一句话,叫得阅读者得天下。不论是英语一还是英语二,阅读理解所占分值最大,但是这一次往往又是很多同学的短板,所以大家要加强阅读理解的练习,这样就能分析出自己的错误点,下面好轻松考研小编给大家带来了2018考研英语阅读理解真题及解析,供大家练习。

  Aimlessness hashardly been typical of the postwar Japan whose productivity and social harmonyare the envy of the United States and Europe. But increasingly the Japanese areseeing a decline of the traditional work-moral values. Ten years ago youngpeople were hard-working and saw their jobs as their primary reason for being,but now Japan has largely fulfilled its economic needs, and young people don'tknow where they should go next。

  The coming of age of the postwar baby boom and an entry of womeninto the male-dominated job market have limited the opportunities of teen-agerswho are already questioning the heavy personal sacrifices involved in climbingJapan's rigid social ladder to good schools and jobs. In a recent survey, itwas found that only 24.5 percent of Japanese students were fully satisfied withschool life, compared with 67.2 percent of students in the United States. Inaddition, far more Japanese workers expressed dissatisfaction with their jobsthan did their counterparts in the 10 other countries surveyed。

  While often praised by foreigners for its emphasis on the basics,Japanese education tends to stress test taking and mechanical learning overcreativity and self-expression。“Those things that do not show up in the test scores-personality,ability, courage or humanity―are completely ignored,” says Toshiki Kaifu,chairman of the ruling Liberal Democratic Party's education committee。“Frustrationagainst this kind of thing leads kids to drop out and run wild。” Last yearJapan experienced 2,125 incidents of school violence, including 929 assaults onteachers. Amid the outcry, many conservative leaders are seeking a return tothe prewar emphasis on moral education. Last year Mitsuo Setoyama, who was theneducation minister, raised eyebrows when he argued that liberal reformsintroduced by the American occupation authorities after World WarⅡhadweakened the “Japanese morality of respect for parents。”

  But that may have more to do with Japanese life-styles. “ In Japan,” sayseducator Yoko Muro,“it's never a question of whether you enjoy your job and your life,but only how much you can endure。” With economic growth has come centralization; fully 76 percent ofJapan's 119 million citizens live in cities where community and the extendedfamily have been abandoned in favor of isolated, two generation households.Urban Japanese have long endured lengthy commutes (travels to and from work)and crowded living conditions, but as the old group and family values weaken,the discomfort is beginning to tell. In the past decade, the Japanese divorcerate, while still well below that of the United States, has increased by morethan 50 percent, and suicides have increased by nearly one-quarter。

  23. In the Westerners’ eyes, the postwar Japan was_____。

  [A]under aimless development

  [B]a positive example

  [C]a rival to the West

  [D]on the decline

  24. According to the author, what may chiefly be responsible forthe moral decline of Japanese society?

  [A]Women's participation in social activities is limited。

  [B]More workers are dissatisfied with their jobs。

  [C]Excessive emphasis has been placed on the basics。

  [D]The life-style has been influenced by Western values。

  25. Which of the following is true according to the author?

  [A]Japanese education is praised for helping the young climb thesocial ladder

  [B]Japanese education is characterized by mechanical learning aswell as creativity。

  [C]More stress should be placed on the cultivation of creativity。

  [D]Dropping out leads to frustration against test taking。

  26. The change in Japanese life-style is revealed in the factthat____。

  [A]the young are less tolerant of discomforts in life。

  [B]the divorce rate in Japan exceeds that in the U.S。

  [C]the Japanese endure more than ever before

  [D]the Japanese appreciate their present life

  真题答案解析

  23. In the Westerners’eyes, the postwar Japan was_____.

  在西方人看来,战后的日本是_____。

  [A]under aimless development 盲目发展

  [B]a positive example 一个积极的例子

  [C]a rival to the West 西方的竞争对手

  [D]on the decline 在衰退中

  【答案】 B

  【考点】 事实细节题。

  【分析】 文章第一段第一句就指出,“盲目性不是战后日本的特色,它的生产率和社会的和谐为美国和欧洲所羡慕。”也就是说是一个积极的正面的例子。[A]违反了第一句。[C]选项和[D]选项不是本文谈论的话题。

  24. According to the author, what may chiefly be responsible for themoral decline of Japanese society?

  根据本文作者的观点,日本社会道德滑坡的主要原因是什么?

  [A] Women's participation in social activities is limited.

  妇女参加社会活动受到限制。

  [B] More workers are dissatisfied with their jobs。

  越来越多的工人对自己的工作感到不满。

  [C] Excessive emphasis has been placed on the basics。

  过多地注重基础教育。

  [D] The life-style has been influenced by Western values。

  生活方式受西方价值观的影响。

  【答案】 D

  【考点】 事实细节题。

  【分析】 文中第一段指出日本人正在逐渐经历传统工作道德价值观的日益滑坡,说“十年前,年轻人工作努力,将工作看作是生存(being)的重要动力”,但是,日本目前在很大程度上满足了其经济发展的需要,年轻人反而不知道下一步的发展目标了。具体提到道德滑坡是在第三段,文中提到校园暴力,提到“保守党领导人正在力图重新重视战前那种道德教育”,“Mitsuo Setoyama”更是冒出“惊人之语”(raise the eyebrows),他坚持认为二战后美国占领*引进的自由改革削弱了“日本人尊敬父母的道德观”。而在下文,作者更是直接提出,“但是,这可能和日本人的生活方式关系更大。人们已经抛弃了社区和大家庭,而更加喜欢单门独户的两代人构成的家庭,旧的集体和家庭价值观被削弱”。由此可见,本题的答案就是[D]选项。

  25. Which of the following is true according to the author?

  在作者看来,以下哪一个是正确的?

  [A] Japanese education is praised for helping the young climb thesocial ladder。

  日本的教育受人称道,因为它有助于年轻人攀登社会阶梯。

  [B] Japanese education is characterized by mechanical learning aswell as creativity。

  日本教育的特点就是既有机械性的学习又有创造力的培养。

  [C] More stress should be placed on the cultivation of creativity。

  应该更加强调创造力的培养上。

  [D] Dropping out leads to frustration against test taking。

  辍学导致了对应试的挫折感。

  【答案】 C

  【考点】 作者观点题。

  【分析】 [A]说法是错误的,因为日本的教育受到外国人赞赏的原因是“它强调整础教育”。[B]说法是错误的,因为文中提到“它强调考试和机械学习而不是创造性和自我表现”。[C]是正确的,因为文中提到“它强调考试和机械学习超过创造性和自我表现”。“那些在考分中不能体现的东西--个性、能力、勇气或人性--完全被忽视了,”执政的自民党教育委员会主席“Toshiki Kaifu”说,“这类事情造成的挫折致使孩子辍学以及变得狂野”,这说明日本应该更加强调创造力的培养。[D]的说法是错误的,因为文中说“这类事情造成的挫折致使孩子辍学以及变得狂野”,该选项故意混淆了原因和结果。

  26. The change in Japanese life-style is revealed in the factthat____.

  日本人生活方式的变化体现在下面的一个事实中。

  [A] the young are less tolerant of discomforts in life

  年轻人对现实生活中困苦的忍受力下降

  [B] the divorce rate in Japan exceeds that in the U.S。

  日本的离婚率超过美国的

  [C] the Japanese endure more than ever before

  日本人忍受的东西比以前更多了

  [D] the Japanese appreciate their present life

  日本人欣赏他们目前的生活

  【答案】 A

  【考点】 事实细节题。

  【分析】 文中提到教育家“YokoMuro”。他说“在日本,你喜欢不喜欢自己的工作和生活,这从来都不是问题,问题是你有多大的承受力”。然后在最后一段里面提到“家庭结构的改变,旧的集体和家庭价值观的削弱,人们的不满凸现”。也就是说“日本人以前默默地忍受生活的困苦,但是,现在年轻的日本人觉得这种牺牲太大,对此产生了逆反情绪”。因此可以判定“日本人的生活方式的变化体现年轻人对现实生活中的困苦忍受力下降”。[B]的说法是错误的,因为根据第四段最后一句,“日本人的离婚率仍然低于美国人的”。[C]在文中找不到很据。[D]可以根据“最近一次调查发现只有24.5%的日本学生对学校生活完全满意,相比之下,美国学生的比例是62.7%。此外,与被调查的其他10个国家的工人相比,对自身工作表示不满的日本工人多得多”进行排除。

  考研英语中阅读的占比很大,大家不要放松对考研英语的复习,争取在最后的一百多天里轻松上岸。有任何考研方面的问题都可以来咨询好轻松考研小编哦。

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新航道好轻松考研首席学术专家。上世纪八十年代北京师范大学翻译 学硕士,曾任国际关系学院副教授,有 30 多年的英语教学与翻译经验, 曾多次被评为优秀教师;出版著作与译作 10 多部;1997 年开始从事 考研培训,对考研英语有深入独到的研究,并曾多次参加全国硕士研 究生英语试卷阅卷工作;独创考研英语“四步定位翻译法”、“词汇四通 记忆法”等,著有《考研英语十年真题点石成金》《考研英语核心词汇 笔记》《考研英语英译汉四步定位翻译法》等畅销书。

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