Section I Structure and Vocabulary
In each question, decide which of the four choices given will most suitably complete the sentence if inserted at the place marked. Put your choice on the answer sheet. (20 points)
1. A variety of small clubs can provide _____ opportunities for leadership, as well as for practice in successful group dynamics.
[A] durable [B] excessive [C] surplus [D] multiple
2. By turning this knob to the right you can _____ the sound from this radio.
[A] amplify [B] enlarge [C] magnify [D] reinforce
3. Under the _____ confronting them it was impossible to continue the strike any longer.
[A] surroundings [B] settings [C] circumstances [D] environments
4. We have the system of exploitation of man by man.
[A] cancelled [B] abolished [C] refused [D] rejected
5. We shall probably never be able to _____ the exact nature of these sub-atomic particles.
[A] assert [B] impart [C] ascertain [D] notify
6. This diploma _____ that you have completed high school.
[A] proves [B] certifies [C] secures [D] approves
7. Up until that time, his interest had focused almost _____ on fully mastering the skills and techniques of his craft.
[A] restrictively [B] radically [C] inclusively [D] exclusively
8. That sound doesn’t _____ in his language so it’s difficult for him to pronounce.
[A] happen [B] take place [C] occur [D] run
9. The security guard _____ two men who were yelling in the courtroom.
[A] expelled [B] propelled [C] repelled [D] dispelled
10. In most cases politicians are _____ as they seldom tell the truth.
[A] credible [B] credulous [C] incredulous [D] incredible
11. He soon received promotion, for his superiors realized that he was a man of considerable _____.
[A] future [B] possibility [C] ability [D] opportunity
12. Britain has the highest _____ of road traffic in the world-over 60 cars for every mile of road.
[A] density [B] intensity [C] popularity [D] prosperity
13. CCTV programs are _____ by satellite to the remotest areas in the country.
[A] transferred [B] transported [C] transformed [D] transmitted
14. An energy tax would curb ordinary air pollution, limit oil imports and cut the budget _____.
[A] disposition [B] deficit [C] defect [D] discrepancy
15. The government will _____ a reform in the educational system.
[A] initiate [B] initial [C] initiative [D] intimate
16. Estimates _____ anywhere from 600 000 to 3 million. Although the figure may vary, analysts do agree on another mater: that the number of the homeless is increasing. One of the federal government’s studies predicts that the number of the homeless will reach nearly 19 million by the end of this decade.
[A] cover [B] change [C] differ [D] range
17. As time went by, computers became smaller and more powerful, and they became “personal” too, as well as institutional, with display becoming sharper and storage _____ increasing.
[A] ability [B] capability [C] capacity [D] faculty
18. It soon becomes clear that the interior designer’s most important basic _____ is the function of the particular space. For example, a theater with poor sight lines, poor sound-shaping qualities, and too few entries and exits will not work for its purpose, no matter how beautifully it might be decorated.
[A] care [B] concern [C] attention [D] intention
19. The purpose of non-REM sleep is even more mysterious. The new experiments, such as those _____ for the first time at a recent meeting or the society for Sleep Research in Minneapolis, suggest fascinating explanations for the purpose of non-REM sleep.
[A] maintained [B] described [C] settled [D] afforded
20. Changes in the social structure may indirectly _____ juvenile crime rates. For example, changes in the economy that lead to fewer job opportunities for youth and rising unemployment in general make gainful employment increasingly difficult to obtain.
[A] affect [B] reduce [C] check [D] reflect
Section II Use of English
Read the following text. Choose the best word (s) for each numbered blank and mark [A], [B], [C] or [D] on ANSWER SHEET. (20 points)
Health implies more than physical fitness. It also implies mental and emotional well-being. An angry, frustrated, emotionally 21 person in good physical condition is not 22 healthy. Mental health, therefore, has much to do 23 how a person copes with the world as s/he exists. Many of the factors that 24 physical health also affect mental and emotional well-being.
Having a good self-image means that people have positive 25 pictures and good, positive feelings about themselves, about what they are capable 26 , and about the roles they play. People with good self-images like themselves, and they are 27 like others. Having a good self-image is based 28 a realistic, as well as positive, or optimistic 29 of one’s own worth and value and capabilities.
Stress is an unavoidable, necessary, and potentially healthful 30 of our society. People of all ages 31 stress. Children begin to 32 stress during prenatal development and during childbirth. Examples of stress-inducing 33 in the life of a young person are death of a pet, pressure to 34 academically, the divorce of parents, or joining a new youth group. The different ways in which individuals 35 to stress may bring healthful or unhealthy results. One person experiencing a great deal of stress may function exceptionally well 36 another may be unable to function at all. If stressful situations are continually encountered, the individual’s physical, social, and mental health are eventually affected.
Satisfying social relations are vital to 37 mental and emotional health. It is believed that in order to 38 , develop, and maintain effective and fulfilling social relationships people must 39 the ability to know and trust each other, understand each other, influence, and help each other. They must also be capable of 40 conflicts in a constructive way.
21. [A] unstable [B] unsure [C] imprecise [D] impractical
22. [A] normally [B] generally [C] virtually [D] necessarily
23. [A] on [B] at [C] to [D] with
24. [A] signify [B] influence [C] predict [D] mark
25. [A] intellectual [B] sensual [C] spiritual [D] mental
26. [A] to be doing [B] with doing [C] to do [D] of doing
27. [A] able better to [B] able to better [C] better to able [D] better able to
28. [A] on [B] from [C] at [D] about
29. [A] assessment [B] decision [C] determination [D] assistance
30. [A] ideality [B] realization [C] realism [D] reality
31. [A] occur [B] engage [C] confront [D] encounter
32. [A] tolerate [B] sustain [C] experience [D] undertake
33. [A] evidence [B] accidents [C] adventures [D] events
34. [A] acquire [B] achieve [C] obtain [D] fulfill
35. [A] respond [B] return [C] retort [D] reply
36. [A] why [B] when [C] while [D] where
37. [A] sound [B] all-round [C] entire [D] whole
38. [A] illuminate [B] enunciate [C] enumerate [D] initiate
39. [A] access [B] assess [C] process [D] possess
40. [A] resolving [B] saluting [C] dissolving [D] solving
Section III Reading Comprehension
Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing [A], [B], [C] or [D] Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET (40 points)
The period of adolescence, i.e., the period between childhood and adulthood, may be long or short, depending on social expectations and on society’s definition as to what constitutes maturity and adulthood. In primitive societies adolescence is frequently a relatively short period of time, while in industrial societies with patterns of prolonged education coupled with laws against child labor, the period of adolescence is much longer and may include most of the second decade of one’s life. Furthermore, the length of the adolescent period and the definition of adulthood status may change in a given society as social and economic conditions change. Examples of this type of change are the disappearance of the frontier in the latter part of the nineteenth century in the United States, and more universally, the industrialization of an agricultural society.
In modern society, ceremonies for adolescence have lost their formal recognition and symbolic significance and there no longer is agreement as to what constitutes initiation ceremonies. Social ones have been replaced by a sequence of steps that lead to increased recognition and social status. For example, grade school graduation, high school graduation and college graduation constitute such a sequence, and while each step implies certain behavioral changes and social recognition, the significance of each depends on the socio-economic status and the educational ambition of the individual. Ceremonies for adolescence have also been replaced by legal definitions of status roles, right, privileges and responsibilities. It is during the nine years from the twelfth birthday to the twenty-first that the protective and restrictive aspects of childhood and minor status are removed and adult privileges and responsibilities are granted. The twelve-year-old is no longer considered a child and has to pay full fare for train, airplane, theater and movie tickets. Basically, the individual at this age loses childhood privileges without gaining significant adult rights. At the age of sixteen the adolescent is granted certain adult rights which increases his social status by providing him with more freedom and choices. He now can obtain a driver’s license; he can leave public schools; and he can work without the restrictions of child labor laws. At the age of eighteen the law provides adult responsibilities as well as rights; the young man can now be a soldier, but he also can marry without parental permission. At the age of twenty-one the individual obtains his full legal rights as an adult. He now can vote, he can buy liquor, he can enter into financial contracts, and he is entitled to run for public office. No additional basic rights are acquired as a function of age after majority status has been attained. None of these legal provisions determine at what point adulthood has been reached but they do point to the prolonged period of adolescence.
41. The period of adolescence is much longer in industrial societies because ________.
[A] the definition of maturity has changed
[B] the industrialized society is more developed
[C] more education is provided and laws against child labor are made(C)
[D] ceremonies for adolescence have lost their formal recognition and symbolic significance
42. Former social ceremonies that used to mark adolescence have given place to ________.
[A] graduations from schools and colleges
[B] social recognition
[C] socio-economic status(A)
[D] certain behavioral changes
43. No one can expect to fully enjoy the adulthood privileges until he is ________.
[A] eleven years old
[B] sixteen years old
[C] twenty-one years old(C)
[D] between twelve and twenty-one years old
44. Starting from 22, ________.
[A] one will obtain more basic rights
[B] the older one becomes, the more basic rights he will have
[C] one won’t get more basic rights than when he is 21(C)
[D] one will enjoy more rights granted by society
45. According to the passage, it is true that ________.
[A] in the late 19th century in the United States the dividing line between adolescence and adulthood no longer existed
[B] no one can marry without the permission of his parents until the age of twenty-one
[C] one is considered to have reached adulthood when he has a driver’s license(A)
[D] one is not free from the restrictions of child labor laws until he can join the arm
Well, no gain without pain, they say. But what about pain without gain? Everywhere you go in America, you hear tales of corporate revival. What is harder to establish is whether the productivity revolution that businessmen assume they are presiding over is for real.
The official statistics are mildly discouraging. They show that, if you lump manufacturing and services together, productivity has grown on average by 1.2% since 1987. That is somewhat faster than the average during the previous decade. And since 1991, productivity has increased by about 2% a year, which is more than twice the 1978-1987 average. The trouble is that part of the recent acceleration is due to the usual rebound that occurs at this point in a business cycle, and so is not conclusive evidence of a revival in the underlying trend. There is, as Robert Rubin, the treasury secretary, says, a “disjunction” between the mass of business anecdote that points to a leap in productivity and the picture reflected by the statistics.
Some of this can be easily explained. New ways of organizing the workplace-all that re-engineering and downsizing-are only one contribution to the overall productivity of an economy, which is driven by many other factors such as joint investment in equipment and machinery, new technology, and investment in education and training. Moreover, most of the changes that companies make are intended to keep them profitable, and this need not always mean increasing productivity: switching to new markets or improving quality can matter just as much.
Two other explanations are more speculative. First, some of the business restructuring of recent years may have been ineptly done. Second, even if it was well done, it may have spread much less widely than people suppose.
Leonard Schlesinger, a Harvard academic and former chief executive of Au Bong Pain, a rapidly growing chain of bakery cafes, says that much “re-engineering” has been crude. In many cases, he believes, the loss of revenue has been greater than the reductions in cost. His colleague, Michael Beer, says that far too many companies have applied re-engineering in a mechanistic fashion, chopping out costs without giving sufficient thought to long term profitability. BBDO’s Al Rosenshine is blunter. He dismisses a lot of the work of re-engineering consultants as mere rubbish-“the worst sort of ambulance cashing.”
46. According to the author, the American economic situation is ________.
[A] not as good as it seems
[B] at its turning point
[C] much better than it seems(A)
[D] near to complete recovery
47. The official statistics on productivity growth ________.
[A] exclude the usual rebound in a business cycle
[B] fall short of businessmen’s anticipation
[C] meet the expectation of business people(B)
[D] fail to reflect the true state of economy
48. The author raises the question “what about pain without gain?” because ________.
[A] he questions the truth of “no gain without pain”
[B] he does not think the productivity revolution works
[C] he wonders if the official statistics are misleading(B)
[D] he has conclusive evidence for the revival of businesses
49. Which of the following statements is NOT mentioned in the passage?
[A] Radical reforms are essential for the increase of productivity.
[B] New ways of organizing workplaces may help to increase productivity.
[C] The reduction of costs is not a sure way to gain long term profitability.(A)
[D] The consultants are a bunch of good-for-nothings.
50. According to the passage, the author’s attitude towards the productivity revolution in the U.S.A is ____.
Money spent on advertising is money spent as well as any I know of. It serves directly to assist a rapid distribution of goods at reasonable price, thereby establishing a firm home market and so making it possible to provide for export at competitive prices. By drawing attention to new ideas it helps enormously to raise standards of living. By helping to increase demand it ensures an increased need for labour, and is therefore an effective way to fight unemployment. It lowers the costs of many services: without advertisements your daily newspaper would cost four times as much, the price of your television license would need to be doubled, and travel by bus or tube would cost 20 per cent more.
And perhaps most important of all, advertising provides a guarantee of reasonable value in the products and services you buy. Apart from the fact that twenty-seven acts of Parliament govern the terms of advertising, no regular advertiser dare promote a product that fails to live up to the promise of his advertisements. He might fool some people for a little while through misleading advertising. He will not do so for long, for mercifully the public has the good sense not to buy the inferior article more than once. If you see an article consistently advertised, it is the surest proof I know that the article does what is claimed for it, and that it represents good value.
Advertising does more for the material benefit of the community than any other force I can think of.
There is one more point I feel I ought to touch on. Recently I heard a well-known television personality declare that he was against advertising because it persuades rather than informs. He was drawing excessively fine distinctions. Of course advertising seeks to persuade.
If its message were confined merely to information-and that in itself would be difficult if not impossible to achieve, for even a detail such as the choice of the colour of a shirt is subtly persuasive- advertising would be so boring that no one would pay any attention. But perhaps that is what the well-known television personality wants.
51. By the first sentence of the passage the author means that ________.
[A] he is fairly familiar with the cost of advertising
[B] everybody knows well that advertising is money consuming
[C] advertising costs money like everything else
[D] it is worthwhile to spend money on advertising
52. In the passage, which of the following is NOT included in the advantages of advertising?
[A] Securing greater fame.
[B] Enhancing living standards.
[C] Providing more jobs.
[D] Reducing newspaper cost.
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好轻松考研专注于国内大学生高端考研培训。以“高能高分”为教育理念，倡导考生遵循学习的基本规律，稳扎稳打，以轻松的心态来学习。好轻松考研以“学术、励志、激情”为教学风格，倡导教师学术过硬，注重鼓励引导，充满激情的为考生授课。好轻松考研以独创英语学习领域 4R 个性化培训为服务体系，确保考生达成理想的学习效果。
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新航道好轻松考研首席学术专家。上世纪八十年代北京师范大学翻译 学硕士，曾任国际关系学院副教授，有 30 多年的英语教学与翻译经验， 曾多次被评为优秀教师；出版著作与译作 10 多部；1997 年开始从事 考研培训，对考研英语有深入独到的研究，并曾多次参加全国硕士研 究生英语试卷阅卷工作；独创考研英语“四步定位翻译法”、“词汇四通 记忆法”等，著有《考研英语十年真题点石成金》《考研英语核心词汇 笔记》《考研英语英译汉四步定位翻译法》等畅销书。