Section I Structure and Vocabulary
Beneath each of the following sentences, there are four choices marked [A], [B], [C] and [D]. Choose the one that best completes the sentence and put your choice in the ANSWER SHEET (20 points)
1. As scheduled, the communications satellite went into ________ round the earth.
[A] circle [B] orbit [C] path [D] course
2. I don’t want to lend any more money to him; he’s already in debt ________ me.
[A] to [B] for [C] of [D] with
3. ________ to speak when the audience interrupted him.
[A] Hardly had he begun [B] No sooner had he begun
[C] Not until he began [D] Scarcely did he begin
4. Jean Wagner’s most enduring contribution to the study of Afro-American poetry is his insistence that it ____ in a religious, as well as worldly, frame of reference.
[A]is to be analyzed [B]has been analyzed
[C]be analyzed [D]should have been analyzed
5. Humble ____ it may be, there’s no place like home, where he may go.
[A]although [B]as [C]how [D]which
6. Although he thought he was helping us prepare the dinner, he was actually ________ the way.
[A] in [B] by [C] off [D] on
7. Although the false banknotes fooled many people, they did not close examination.
[A] put up [B] keep up [C] stand up to [D] look up to
8. Anna was reading a piece of science fiction, completely ________ to the outside world.
[A] being lost [B] having lost [C] losing [D] lost
9. Our modern civilization must not be thought of as ________ in a short period of time.
[A] being created [B] to have been created
[C] having been created [D] to be created
10. The students expected there ________ more reviewing classes before the final exam.
[A] is [B] being [C] have been [D] to be
11. The patient has been ________ of the safety of the operation.
[A] assured [B] guaranteed [C] entrusted [D] confirmed
12. Will you ________ this passage to see if there is any misprint?
[A] look up [B] go over [C] dwell on [D] work out
13. The album is as it was the only one ever signed by the President.
[A] unusual [B] unique [C] rare [D] singular
14. Prof. Ward hardly ever went to the theater.
[A] neither the cinema nor [B] neither the cinema or
[C] either the cinema or [D] either the cinema nor
15. The bank is reported ________ in the local newspaper in broad daylight yesterday.
[A] to be robbed [B] robbed
[C] to have been robbed [D] having been robbed
16. Talk to anyone in the drug industry, you’ll soon discover that the science of genetics is the biggest thing to hit drug research since penicillin was discovered.
[A] or [B] so [C] for [D] and
17. Had Paul received six more votes in the last election, he ________ our chairman now.
[A] must have been [B] would have been [C] were [D] would be
18. Stressful environments lead to unhealthy behaviors such as poor eating habits, which ________ increase the risk of heart disease.
[A] in turn [B] in return [C] by chance [D] by turns
19. The tourist is prevented from entering a country if he does not have ________ passport.
[A] an operative [B] a valid [C] an efficient [D] an effective
20. The project requires more labor than ________.
[A] has been put in [B] have been put in [C] being put in [D] to be put in
Section II Use of English
Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and put your choice in the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)
Reading to oneself is a modern activity which was almost unknown to the scholars of the classical and 21 worlds, while during the fifteenth century the term “reading” 22 meant reading aloud. Only during the nineteenth century did silent reading become commonplace. -One should be wary, however, of 23 that silent reading came about simply because reading aloud is a(n) 24 to others. Examination of factors related to the 25 development of silent reading reveals that it became the usual mode of reading for most adult reading tasks mainly because the tasks themselves changed in 26 .
The last century saw a steady gradual increase in 27 , and thus in the number of readers. As readers increased, the number of potential listeners 28 , and thus there was some 29 in the need to read aloud. As reading for the benefit of listeners grew less common, so came the flourishing of reading as a 30 activity in such public places as libraries, railway carriages and offices, where reading aloud would 31 distraction to other readers.
Towards the end of the century there was still 32 argument over whether books should be used for information or treated 33 , and over whether the reading of material such as newspapers was in some way 34 weakening. Indeed this argument remains with us still in education. 35 , its virtues, the old shared literacy culture had gone and was 36 by the printed mass media on the one hand and by books and periodicals for a 37 readership on the other.
By the end of the century students were being recommended to adopt attitudes to books and to use skills in reading them which were inappropriate, 38 not impossible, for the oral reader. The social, cultural, and technological changes in the century had greatly 39 what the term “reading” 40 .
21.[A] contemporary[B] modern[C] medieval [D] western
22.[A] undoubtedly[B] really[C] absolutely[D] accordingly
23.[A] imagining[B] consuming[C] resuming[D] assuming
24.[A] interruption[B] distraction[C] bother[D] pressure
25.[A] historical[B] historic[C] history[D] historian
26.[A] quality[B] character[C] personality[D] distinctiveness
27.[A] literate[B] illiterate[C] literacy[D] literature
28.[A] receded[B] declined[C] increased[D] expanded
29.[A] limitation[B] necessity[C] reduction[D] shrink
30.[A] private[B] overt[C] public[D] secret
31.[A] cause[B] effect[C] produce[D] realize
32.[A] considerable[B] considerate[C] moderate[D] immoderate
33.[A] respectively[B] honorably[C] respectfully[D] relatively
34.[A] largely[B] intelligently[C] mentally[D] physically
35.[A] However[B]Whatever[C] Whichever[D] Wherever
36.[A] replaced[B] taken[C] followed[D] distinguished
37.[A] specific[B] special[C] specified[D] specialized
38.[A] and[B] if[C] but[D] or
39.[A] translated[B] differed[C] shifted[D] altered
40.[A] inferred[B] advised[C] induced[D] implied
Section III Reading Comprehension
Each of the passages below is followed by some questions. For each question four answers are given. Read the passages carefully and choose the best answer to each of the questions. Put your choice in the ANSWER SHEET. (40 points)
The entrepreneur, according to French economist J.B. Say, “is a person who shifts economic resources out of an area of lower and into an area of higher productivity and yield.” But Say’s definition does not tell us who this entrepreneur is. Some define the entrepreneur simply as one who starts his or her own new and small business. For our purposes, we will define the entrepreneur as a person who takes the necessary risks to organize and manage a business and receives the financial profits and nonmonetary rewards.
The man who opens a small pizza restaurant is in business, but is he an entrepreneur? He took a risk and did something, but did he shift resources or start the business? If the answer is yes, then he is considered an entrepreneur. Ray Kroc is an example of an entrepreneur because he founded and established McDonald’s. His hamburgers were not a new idea, but he applied new techniques, resource allocations, and organizational methods in his venture. Ray Kroc upgraded the productivity and yield from the resources applied to create his fast-food chain. This is what entrepreneurs do; this is what entrepreneurship means.
Many of the sharp, black-and-white contrasts between the entrepreneur and the professional have faded to gray color. Formerly, professionals such as doctors, lawyers, dentists, and accountants were not supposed to be entrepreneurial, aggressive, or market oriented. They were “above” the market-driven world. Entrepreneurs, on the other hand, were the mavericks of society. They were risk-takers who aggressively sought to make something happen. Long hours were about all the two worlds had in common. However, increased competition, saturated markets, and a more price-conscious public have changed the world of the professionals. Today they need to market their skills, talents, and competencies. Lawyers advertise their services. Doctors specialize in one form of surgery. Accounting firms join with other businesses (e.g., consulting and law) to serve clients.
Entrepreneurs exhibit many different behaviors; searching for a specific personality pattern is very difficult. Some entrepreneurs are quiet, introverted, and analytical. On the other hand, some are brash, extroverted, and very emotional. Many of them share some qualities. Viewing change as the norm, entrepreneurs usually search for it, respond to it, and treat it as an opportunity. An entrepreneur such as Ray Kroc of McDonald’s is able to take resources and shift them to meet a need. Making the decision to shift resources works better if a person is creative, experienced, and confident.
41. According to the first paragraph, who can be regarded as an entrepreneur?
[A] The CEO of a big company. [B] The owner of a profitable restaurant.
[C] A man who started a new kind of business. [D] A successful salesman.
42. According to the text, the professionals .
[A] are quite different from entrepreneurs even now
[B] were considered to be enterprising and market-centered
[C] were price-conscious
[D] have to advertise themselves in nowadays
43. From the text, we learn that .
[A] an entrepreneur should be very extroverted
[B] an entrepreneur should be quick to seize opportunities
[C] change is not norm in an entrepreneur’s eyes
[D] the French economist J.B. Say is the first person who gave the definition of “entrepreneur”
44. The purpose of the author in writing the passage is to .
[A] complete the definition of entrepreneur
[B] tell the readers what is entrepreneur and the main characteristics of entrepreneurs
[C] show what kind of people can become entrepreneurs
[D] illustrate why Ray Kroc can become an entrepreneur
45. What will most possibly follow the text?
[A] An example of how an entrepreneur operates. [B] Another theory about entrepreneurship.
[C] The bad effects of entrepreneurs. [D] The good effects of entrepreneurs.
St. Paul didn’t like it. Moses warned his people against it. Hesiod declared it “mischievious” and “hard to get rid of it,” but Oscar Wilder said, “Gossip is charming.”
“History is merely gossip,” he wrote in one of his famous plays. “But scandal is gossip made tedious by morality.”
In times past, under Jewish law, gossipmongers might be fined or flogged. The Puritans put them in stocks or ducking stools, but no punishment seemed to have the desired effect of preventing gossip, which has continued uninterrupted across the back fences of the centuries.
Today, however, the much-maligned human foible is being looked at in a different light. Psychologists, sociologists, philosophers, even evolutionary biologists are concluding that gossip may not be so bad after all.
Gossip is “an intrinsically valuable activity,” philosophy professor Aaron Ben-Ze’ev states in a book he has edited, entitled Good Gossip. For one thing, gossip helps us acquire information that we need to know that doesn’t come through ordinary channels, such as: “What was the real reason so-and-so was fired from the office?” Gossip also is a form of social bonding, Dr. Ben-Ze’ev says. It is “a kind of sharing” that also “satisfies the tribal need-namely, the need to belong to and be accepted by a unique group.” What’s more, the professor notes, “Gossip is enjoyable.”
Another gossip groupie, Dr. Ronald De Sousa, a professor of philosophy at the University of Toronto, describes gossip basically as a form of indiscretion and a “saintly virtue”, by which he means that the knowledge spread by gossip will usually end up being slightly beneficial. “It seems likely that a world in which all information were universally available would be preferable to a world where immense power resides in the control of secrets,” he writes.
Still, everybody knows that gossip can have its ill effects, especially on the poor wretch being gossiped about. And people should refrain from certain kinds of gossip that might be harmful, even though the ducking stool is long out of fashion.
By the way, there is also an interesting strain of gossip called medical gossip, which in its best form, according to researchers Jerry M. Suls and Franklin Goodkin, can motivate people with symptoms of serious illness, but who are unaware of it, to seek medical help.
So go ahead and gossip. But remember, if (as often is the case among gossipers) you should suddenly become one of the gossipees instead, it is best to employ the foolproof defense recommended by Plato, who may have learned the lesson from Socrates, who as you know was the victim of gossip spread that he was corrupting the youth of Athens: When men speak ill of thee, so live that nobody will believe them. Or, as Will Rogers said, “Live so that you wouldn’t be ashamed to sell the family parrot to the town gossip.”
46. Persons’ remarks are mentioned at the beginning of the text to ____.
[A] show the general disapproval of gossip
[B] introduce the topic of gossip
[C] examine gossip from a historical perspective
[D] prove the real value of gossip
47. By “Gossip also is a form of social bonding” (Para. 5), Professor Aaron Ben-Ze’ev means gossip ____.
[A] is a valuable source of social information
[B] produces a joy that most people in society need
[C] brings people the feel of being part of a group
[D] satisfies people’s need of being unusual
48. Which of the following statements is true according to the text?
[A] everyone involved will not benefit from gossip.
[B] philosophers may hold different attitudes toward gossip.
[C] Dr. Ronald De Sousa regards gossips as perfectly advantageous.
[D] people are generally not conscious of the value of medical gossip.
49. We learn from the last paragraph that ____.
[A] gossipers will surely become gossipees someday
[B] Socrates was a typical example of a gossiper becoming a gossipee
[C] Plato escaped being a victim of gossip by no gossiping
[D] an easy way to confront gossip when subjected to it is to live as usual
50. The author’s attitude toward “gossip” can be best described as ____.
[A] neutral [B] positive
[C] negative [D] indifferent
Efforts could potentially avoid at least some of the psychopathy (mental illness) that underlies school shootings, since medicine now can help even the most severely ill. And they would also benefit the many young people struggling with far less extreme brain disorders.
The U.S. Secret Service, which studies “targeted violence”, provides insight on the urgency of the need in its 2002 “Safe School Initiative” report: School attacks, instead of being the random impulsive acts of noisy and cruel fellows, are well-planned events mostly carried out by a single student-who is not evil but mentally ill. Except for being male, the 41 attackers studied fit no profile of family background，race，ethnicity，or even academic performance. Many were A and B students. Few had a history of violent or criminal behavior. But their thoughts were of violence, and their behavior was often intimidating. They frequently expressed violent themes in their writings, in one instance portraying killing and suicide as solutions to feelings of despair. The criminals often had telegraphed to other students and teachers their depression or desperation and either talked about or had attempted suicide. Feelings of persecution by others were common and led to growing resentment and anger.
Psychiatrists and psychologists recognize that these are red flags demanding medical intervention. Yet one of most striking findings in the report was that the vast majority of these students never had a mental-health evaluation. No wonder only 17 percent were diagnosed with a psychiatric illness-it wasn’t looked for. That alone points to a huge mental health gap: If the distress of these students didn’t trigger medical attention, it’s unlikely that less severe struggles that are seen in as many as 15 to 20 percent of other students will do so.
Only recently have we learned that these are neurodevelopmental disorders whose early signs might well be picked up in routine podiatric screening. For example, a classic behavior in a child that can precede psychosis later in 1ife is speaking to almost no one, even family, says Nasrallah.
Genes are known to confer vulnerability, but equally important is the environment. Stress or great disappointment can aggravate symptoms; Connecting with an adult in an ongoing relationship can do the opposite. Interventions like social-skills training combined with talk therapy and targeted medication can make a huge difference. Early treatment can lessen the frequency and intensity of psychotic episodes, leaving many patients with only the mildest of symptoms. And the younger the brain, the more malleable is. The ultimate goal is to not only modify evaluation of disease but keep it from arising in the first place. This is achievable, and the path to get there is becoming clear.
51. According to the US Secret Service, school attacks are characterized as .
[A] reactive [B] revengeful
[C] plotted [D] impulsive
52. One common characteristic of school attackers is that .
[A] they exhibit bad academic performances
[B] they have violent thoughts and intimidating behavior
[C] they regard homicide and suicide as ways of tackling despair
[D] they have records of violence and crimes
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新航道好轻松考研首席学术专家。上世纪八十年代北京师范大学翻译 学硕士，曾任国际关系学院副教授，有 30 多年的英语教学与翻译经验， 曾多次被评为优秀教师；出版著作与译作 10 多部；1997 年开始从事 考研培训，对考研英语有深入独到的研究，并曾多次参加全国硕士研 究生英语试卷阅卷工作；独创考研英语“四步定位翻译法”、“词汇四通 记忆法”等，著有《考研英语十年真题点石成金》《考研英语核心词汇 笔记》《考研英语英译汉四步定位翻译法》等畅销书。