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考研英语作文,背诵这5项内容,才是重中之重

2020-08-12 15:30:00 来源:互联网 作者:考研小编
摘要:考研人究竟要对哪些内容进行研习背诵默写互译模仿呢?具体来说,包括五个方面:重点词汇、常用套语、精彩句子、优秀段落、经典篇章。我们逐一来看!

  胡敏教授在英语写作十字真经中说:考研人要想提高英语写作能力拿到英语作文高分要在研习、背诵、默写、互译、模仿这五个方面下功夫苦练

  知道了苦练方法还得搞清楚苦练对象~考研人究竟要对哪些内容进行研习背诵默写互译模仿呢?具体来说,包括五个方面:重点词汇、常用套语、精彩句子、优秀段落、经典篇章。我们逐一来看!

  01

  重点词汇

  美妙的用词及搭配皆在此列,像fall victim(受害)、stand a fair chance(大有希望)这种地道的动宾搭配要勤加记忆。为了积累写作词汇,应将文中同属一个话题的用词汇总归纳,组成主题词族(topic family)。归类记忆可以使自己日后即写即用,得心应手。

  下文是一篇阐释爱心的优秀文章,多处用词精巧,现将文中关于爱心这一主题的词汇总结如下:

  爱心主题的词汇

  emotional strength 情感的力量

  the noblest of human emotions 人类最高尚的情感

  no thought of gain 不计得失

  the lamp of love 爱心之灯

  help the victims of natural disasters 支援自然灾害受害者

  donate whatever they can 倾囊相助

  help their needy fellow citizens 帮助有需要的同胞

  be ready to give a helping hand 随时准备伸出援手

  2001年考研英语写作真题范文

  When we use the word "love", we do not simply mean an attraction to a person of the opposite sex, which is a very narrow definition of the word. Love is emotional strength, which can support us no matter how dark the world around us becomes. In fact, throughout history people of many different cultures have regarded love as the noblest of human emotions.

  当我们用“爱”这个词时,我们不仅仅指异性对一个人的吸引,这只是对这个词非常狭隘的解释。爱心是一种情感的力量,不论我们周围的世界多么黑暗,爱心都能支撑我们。事实上,纵观历史,不同文化背景的人都把爱看成是人类最高尚的情感。

  As an example of the power of love, we should remember how the Chinese people of all nationalities respond to the call to help the victims of natural disasters every year. Although their incomes are still low by international standards, people all over the country do not hesitate to donate whatever they can ― be it money or goods ― to help their needy fellow citizens. Moreover, they do this with no thought of gain for themselves.

  说到爱心的力量,我们马上就会想起每年中国各族人民是如何响应号召支援自然灾害受害者的。尽管按照国际标准他们的收入还处于低水平,全国人民毫不犹豫地倾囊相助――不管是钱还是物――帮助那些有需要的同胞。而且,他们这么做并不考虑自己的得失。

  In my opinion, the best way to show love is to help people who are more unfortunate than we are. We should always be ready to give a helping hand to those who are in trouble, no matter whether they are family members or complete strangers. In this way, we can help to make the world a better place, for the darker the shadows of sorrow become, the more brightly the lamp of love shines.

  我认为,表达爱心的最好方式是帮助比我们更加不幸的人。我们应该随时准备向有困难的人伸出援助之手,无论他们是家庭成员还是素昧平生。这样,我们就能够助一臂之力把世界变成一个更美好的地方,因为,悲伤的阴影越黑暗,爱心之灯的光芒就越闪亮。

  02

  常用套语

  套语指流行的公式化语言,在写作中适当使用颇有必要。如在商业信函结尾,期望对方早日回复的表达方式就要遵循套语的基本模式,使表达规范得体。

  下面试举几个例子

  Kindly favor us with an early reply. 请早日赐复。

  Your prompt reply will be highly appreciated. 如能及时回复,将不胜感谢。

  We look forward to hearing from you soon. 早日回复。

  We are expecting your prompt reply. 急盼回复。

  Please have the kindness to answer this letter quickly. 请早日回信。

  Kindly let us have your reply at your earliest convenience. 请在您方便时尽早赐函。

  We would appreciate it if you could respond right away. 如能即刻回复,将不胜感谢。

  当前流行应试写作模板,即套语的使用贯穿文章始终,为考生提供“万能公式型”的文章主框架,每句表达皆由固定套语框定,考生只要背下套用句型、过渡词语,在考试中根据特定考题填充具体内容即可。用这种应试策略写出的文章矫揉造作,生硬刻板,虽可以让考生及格过关,但绝对得不到高分。

  套语的过多使用不妨可以比作大海中的救生圈,有了它,仅仅可以让不擅游泳者保全性命,却无法自在畅游,一展泳姿。一般而言,套语较为空洞,如使用过多,文章容易流于空泛,言之无物。写作宜虚实结合,形式与内容相统一。

  下例是一篇比较在家学习与入校读书二者优劣的范文,文中巧妙地使用了一些固定句式和过渡词语,不仅增强了表达效果,而且实现了形式与内容的统一。

  范文

  There are two major arguments that can be made for studying at home. First, as advances in the electronic media have brought the whole world of scholarship into the home via the Internet and educational courses on TV, the classroom is no longer the only place for acquiring knowledge. Second, it is widely held that a person studies better in the familiar surroundings of his own home and when he can arrange his own study time.

  关于在家学习,我们可以提出两个主要理由。第一,由于电子媒体方面取得的进步把整个世界的知识通过互联网和电视上的教育课程带入了家庭,教室不再是唯一获取知识的场所。第二,人们普遍认为,在自己家里这样熟悉的环境中学习,并且能自己安排学习时间,一个人能学得更好。

  But we must not lose sight of the fact that there are advantages to studying in the classroom, too. Being surrounded by people of roughly the same abilities and interests can be a great stimulus to acquiring knowledge, whereas studying in solitude at home is boring for many people. More importantly, there can be no substitute for a good teacher, who must not only be able to impart facts and theories, but also to appraise and encourage his students.

  但是,我们不能忽视在教室里学习也有好处这一事实。周围都是能力相近和兴趣相投的人可能会对获取知识形成巨大的刺激,而对很多人来说独自一人在家学习会有些枯燥乏味。更重要的是,没有什么可以替代一个好老师,他不仅能够传道授业,而且能够评估并鼓励学生。

  Given the choice between these two methods of learning, I prefer the classroom. This is because I am the sort of person who finds it difficult to concentrate on study in the midst of household chores, and disturbances from visitors and telephone calls. The classroom environment, I feel, is the only one in which most people feel comfortable applying all their energies to the all-important task of acquiring knowledge.

  如果在两种学习方法中选择,我更喜欢在教室里学习,因为我是那种很难在家务琐事、客人、电话的打扰下集中注意力学习的人。我认为大多数人只有在教室里才能把全部精力放在获取知识这件十分重要的事上。

  03

  精彩句子

  精彩句子指文章中句式优美、蕴含哲理的句子。精彩句子的背诵有助于写作时的引用和模仿。

  如在阅读美国前总统约翰·肯尼迪(John F. Kennedy)的就职演说(Inaugural Address)时,可以记住诸如“Ask not what your country can do for you, ask what you can do for your country. ”(不要问国家能为你做什么,而要问你能为国家做什么。)这样的传世佳句;当你写关于爱国(patriotism)主题的作文时,则可以适时引用。

  现仍以上面谈“爱心”的文章为例,其中值得背诵的句子为数不少,摘录如下:

  爱心主题佳句

  ① Love is emotional strength, which can support us no matter how dark the world around us becomes.

  爱心是情感的力量,不论我们周围的世界多么黑暗,爱心都能支撑我们。

  ② People all over the country do not hesitate to donate whatever they can ― be it money or goods ― to help their needy fellow citizens.

  全国人民毫不犹豫地倾囊相助――不管是钱还是物――帮助那些有需要的同胞。

  ③ The best way to show love is to help people who are more unfortunate than we are.

  表达爱心的最好方式是帮助比我们更加不幸的人。

  ④ The darker the shadows of sorrow become, the more brightly the lamp of love shines.

  悲伤的阴影越黑暗,爱心之灯的光芒就越明亮。

  04

  优秀段落

  阅读时,我们经常会碰到一些过目难忘的段落。这些段落或者表达流畅、文笔优美,或者逻辑缜密、结构严谨。根据表达需要,有不同的功能段落,如现象说明段、观点陈述段、原因列举段、利弊解释段、结论归纳段、趋势预测段、措施建议段等。

  有些优秀段落可以作为写作的功能段落加以背诵,对于我们拓展思路、规范行文大有裨益。在背诵过程中,熟练掌握各种功能段落的行文规则,自己在表达时就能驾轻就熟。

  下面仅举观点陈述段和措施建议段各一例。

  观点陈述段

  (陈述“民族文化应该成为世界文化”的观点,2002年考研英语写作真题)

  A culture of one nation may become international, which is beneficial for all mankind. Since China has opened its doors widely to the outside world, many people from different countries want to visit China. They will come to accept and love Chinese culture as a whole. In addition, Chinese culture should be shared generously with foreign people, who show great interest in it. Meanwhile, as more and more foreigners come to China, they bring aspects of their own culture to share with the Chinese people. In this way, people from various nations in the world will be able to acquire a better understanding of each other and live peacefully together.

  一个国家的文化可能成为世界文化,这对全人类都有益。由于中国已经向外界敞开了国门,许多来自不同国家的人都希望来看一看中国。他们会开始接受并喜欢整个中国文化,中国文化应该大大方方地让感兴趣的外国人分享。与此同时,随着来中国的外国人越来越多,他们也把他们自己的文化带给了中国人民。这样,世界各国的人们就能够更好地相互理解、和平相处。

  措施建议段

  (建议“人口老龄化”的解决措施)

  The speed at which the population is aging has made it more urgent for the adoption of countermeasures. No doubt, the key is to build a solid economic foundation. Meanwhile, importance should be attached to overall social progress by changing the backward situation in social security, welfare and service. What's more, family care and community services should also be encouraged.

  人口老龄化的加速使采取应对措施变得更为紧迫。毫无疑问,解决问题的关键是建立稳固的经济基础。与此同时,应该重视整体的社会进步,改变社会保障、福利和服务的落后局面。除此之外,应该鼓励居家护理和社区服务。

  05

  经典篇章

  古往今来,英语宝库中涌现出大批经典佳作,如林肯的《葛底斯堡演说》(The Gettysburg Address)、福克纳的诺贝尔奖演说(Banquet Speech)、海伦·凯勒的《给我三天光明》(Three Days to See)。

  这些文章在文字的运用上技法高超,在思想内涵上寓意深刻,读来字字珠玑,文字优美,启迪心智,含义隽永(full of exquisite words and truth, satisfying the mind, appealing to the heart)。这样的文章如不能熟读成诵,则无法融会贯通。背诵一定数量的经典名篇既有助于提高自己遣词造句的能力,也有助于加强自己表达思想的深度。

  下面的一篇短文是英国哲学家罗素(Bertrand Russell)自传的序言部分,题为What I Have Lived For(我的人生追求),概述了作者一生追求的三种理想,文章在语言和思想两个方面都堪称经典,值得背诵。

  What I Have Lived For

  我的人生追求

  Three passions, simple but overwhelmingly strong, have governed my life: the longing for love, the search for knowledge, and unbearable pity for the suffering of mankind. These passions, like great winds, have blown me hither and thither, in a wayward course, over a deep ocean of anguish, reaching to the very verge of despair.

  有三种简单然而无比强烈的激情左右了我的一生:对爱的渴望、对知识的探索和对人类苦难的难以忍受的怜悯。这些激情像飓风,无处不在、反复无常地吹拂着我,吹过深重的苦海,濒于绝境。

  I have sought love, first, because it brings ecstasy ― ecstasy so great that I would often have sacrificed all the rest of life for a few hours of this joy. I have sought it, next, because it relieves loneliness ― that terrible loneliness in which one shivering consciousness looks over the rim of the world into the cold unfathomable lifeless abyss. I have sought it, finally, because in the union of love I have seen, in a mystic miniature, the prefiguring vision of the heaven that saints and poets have imagined. This is what I sought, and though it might seem too good for human life, this is what ― at last ― I have found.

  我寻找爱,首先是因为它使人心醉神迷,这种陶醉是如此的美妙,使我愿意牺牲所有的余生去换取几个小时这样的欣喜。我寻找爱,还因为它解除孤独,在可怕的孤独中,一颗颤抖的灵魂从世界的边缘看到冰冷、无底、死寂的深渊。最后,我寻找爱,还因为在爱的交融中,神秘而又具体而微地,我看到了圣贤和诗人们想象出的天堂的前景。这就是我所寻找的,而且,虽然对人生来说似乎过于美妙,这也是我终于找到了的。

  With equal passion I have sought knowledge. I have wished to understand the hearts of men. I have wished to know why the stars shine. And I have tried to apprehend the Pythagorean power by which number holds sway above the flux. A little of this, but not much, I have achieved.

  以同样的激情我探索知识。我希望能够理解人类的心灵。我希望能够知道群星为何闪烁。我试图领悟毕达哥拉斯所景仰的数字力量,它支配着此消彼涨。仅在不大的一定程度上,我达到了此目的。

  Love and knowledge, so far as they were possible, led upward toward the heavens. But always pity brought me back to earth. Echoes of cries of pain reverberate in my heart. Children in famine, victims tortured by oppressors, helpless old people ― a hated burden to their sons, and the whole world of loneliness, poverty, and pain make a mockery of what human life should be. I long to alleviate the evil, but I can't, and I too suffer.

  爱和知识,只要有可能,通向着天堂。但是怜悯总把我带回尘世。痛苦呼喊的回声回荡在我的内心。忍饥挨饿的孩子,惨遭压迫者摧残的受害者,被儿女们视为可憎负担的无助的老人,连同这整个充满了孤独、贫穷和痛苦的世界,使人类所应有的生活成为了笑柄。我渴望能够减少邪恶,但是我无能为力,而且我自己也在忍受折磨。

  This has been my life. I have found it worth living, and would gladly live it again if the chance were offered me.

  这就是我的一生。我发现它值得一过。如果再给我一次机会,我会很高兴地再活它一次。(方舟子 译)

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新航道好轻松考研首席学术专家。上世纪八十年代北京师范大学翻译 学硕士,曾任国际关系学院副教授,有 30 多年的英语教学与翻译经验, 曾多次被评为优秀教师;出版著作与译作 10 多部;1997 年开始从事 考研培训,对考研英语有深入独到的研究,并曾多次参加全国硕士研 究生英语试卷阅卷工作;独创考研英语“四步定位翻译法”、“词汇四通 记忆法”等,著有《考研英语十年真题点石成金》《考研英语核心词汇 笔记》《考研英语英译汉四步定位翻译法》等畅销书。

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