① Unlike so-called basic emotions, such as sadness, fear and anger, guilt emerges a little later, in conjunction with a child’s growing grasp of social and moral norms.【21T解题句】 Children aren’t born knowing how to say “I’m sorry”; rather, they learn over time that such statements appease parents and friends—and their own consciences. 【21T定位】This is why researchers generally regard so-called moral guilt, in the right amount, to be a good thing.
② 【22T定位】In the popular imagination, of course, guilt still gets a bad rap. It is deeply uncomfortable—it’s the emotional equivalent of wearing a jacket weighted with stones. Yet this understanding is outdated. 【23T定位】“There has been a kind of revival or a rethinking about what guilt is and what role guilt can serve,” says Amrisha Vaish, a psychology researcher at the University of Virginia, 【23T解题句】adding that this revival is part of a larger recognition that emotions aren’t binary—feeling that may be advantageous in one context may be harmful in another. Jealousy and anger, for example, may have evolved to alert us to important inequalities. Too much happiness can be destructive.
③ And guilt, by prompting us to think more deeply about our goodness, can encourage humans to make up for errors and fix relationships. Guilt, in other words, can help hold a cooperative species together. It is a kind of social glue.
④ Viewed in this light, guilt is an opportunity. Work by Tina Malti, a psychology professor at the University of Toronto, suggests that guilt may compensate for an emotional deficiency. In a number of studies, Malti and others have shown that guilt and sympathy may represent different pathways to cooperation and sharing. Some kids who are low in sympathy may make up for that shortfall by experiencing more guilt, which can rein in their nastier impulses. And vice versa: High sympathy can substitute for low guilt.
⑤ In a 2014 study, for example, Malti looked at 244 children. Using caregiver assessments and the children’s self-observations, she rated each child’s overall sympathy level and his or her tendency to feel negative emotions after moral transgressions. Then the kids were handed chocolate coins, and given a chance to share them with an anonymous child. For the low-sympathy kids, how much they shared appeared to turn on how inclined they were to feel guilty. The guilt-prone ones shared more, even though they hadn’t magically become more sympathetic to the other child’s deprivation.
⑥ “That’s good news,” Malti says. “We can be prosocial because we caused harm and we feel regret.”
21. Researchers think that guilt can be a good thing because it may help______.
1)定位：模糊定位 P1/P2——关键词准确定位(guilt can be a good thing)
2)解题：This(知识点1) is why researchers generally regard so-called moral guilt, in the right amount, to be a good thing.
知识点1：承前指代，解题句：Unlike so-called basic emotions, such as sadness, fear and anger, guilt emerges a little later, in conjunction with a child’s growing grasp of social and moral(选项原词复现) norms.
[A] regulate a child’s basic emotions
[B] improve a child’s intellectual ability
[C] foster a child’s moral development
[D] intensify a child’s positive feelings
22. According to Paragraph 2, many people still consider guilt to be______.
2)解题：In the popular imagination, of course, guilt still gets a bad rap. ——此句不能直接解题——下句找线索——It is deeply uncomfortable—it’s the emotional equivalent of wearing a jacket weighted with stones.——burdensome(单词记忆：burden+-some形容词后缀，累赘的，不堪重负的。拓展：类似的-some后缀的单词：worrisome, handsome)
23. Vaish holds that the rethinking about guilt comes from an awareness that______.
2)解题：adding that this revival is part of a larger recognition that emotions aren’t binary—feeling that may be advantageous in one context may be harmful in another.
[A] emotions are context-independent(脱离环境的，与解题句意思相反)
[B] emotions are socially constructive(未提到)
[C] emotional stability can benefit health(未提到)
[D] an emotion can play opposing roles(一种情感可以起到完全不同的作用，解题句中说到：一种环境下有利另外一种环境下有害，是两种相反的作用)
24. Malti and others have shown that cooperation and sharing______.
2)解题：Malti and others have shown that guilt and sympathy may represent different pathways to cooperation and sharing.
[A] may help correct emotional deficiencies
[B] can result from either sympathy or guilt
[C] can bring about emotional satisfaction
[D] may be the outcome of impulsive acts
25. The word “transgressions” (Para.5) is closest in meaning to______.
[A] teachings 教导;教义;说教
[B] discussions 讨论
[C] restrictions 限制
[D] wrongdoings 错误
① Unlike so-called basic emotions, such as(同位语标志，表示列举) sadness, fear and anger, guilt (主)emerges (谓) a little later, in conjunction with(引导伴随状语) a child’s growing grasp of social and moral norms.
1. in conjunction with 与……一起，共同
2. appease vt. 抚慰、平息;满足(要求)，缓解(感觉)
3. rap n./v. 轻敲;叩击;苛责，尖锐批评
4. binary adj. 二元的，双重的，两极的
5. evolve v. 进化 evolve to do
6. substitute for 代替
好轻松考研专注于国内大学生高端考研培训。以“高能高分”为教育理念，倡导考生遵循学习的基本规律，稳扎稳打，以轻松的心态来学习。好轻松考研以“学术、励志、激情”为教学风格，倡导教师学术过硬，注重鼓励引导，充满激情的为考生授课。好轻松考研以独创英语学习领域 4R 个性化培训为服务体系，确保考生达成理想的学习效果。
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新航道好轻松考研首席学术专家。上世纪八十年代北京师范大学翻译 学硕士，曾任国际关系学院副教授，有 30 多年的英语教学与翻译经验， 曾多次被评为优秀教师；出版著作与译作 10 多部；1997 年开始从事 考研培训，对考研英语有深入独到的研究，并曾多次参加全国硕士研 究生英语试卷阅卷工作；独创考研英语“四步定位翻译法”、“词汇四通 记忆法”等，著有《考研英语十年真题点石成金》《考研英语核心词汇 笔记》《考研英语英译汉四步定位翻译法》等畅销书。