欢迎来到好轻松考研.广东学校官网(广州|深圳|珠三角)| 专业研究生考试培训教育机构
广州考研培训机构 > 考研科目资讯 > 考研英语资讯

攻克这3座英语大山,考研英语才有望高分

2020-07-30 10:49:00 来源:互联网 作者:考研小编
摘要:攻克这3座英语大山,考研英语才有望高分?三座英语大山是那三座呢?我们一起来看看吧!

  攻克这3座英语大山,考研英语才有望高分。今天好轻松考研小编来告诉同学们如何攻克考研英语的三座大山——词义理解、长难句分析、语篇结构把握。

  第一座大山:词义理解

  重视熟词生义

  单词看着都认识,但做阅读理解时怎么都理解不通,这就是单词的熟词生义,熟悉的单词有比较生僻的含义或者在具体语境下有引申义,考研英语尤其喜欢考。

  suggest

  The researchers suggest that capuchin monkeys, like humans, are guided by social emotions.

  suggest,学过的意思是“建议”,但在考研英语中它有“认为,表明”的意思。

  研究工作者认为卷尾猴像人一样,被社会情绪所引导。

  nature(good-natured)

  The statement “it is all too monkey” (Last line, Paragraph l) implies that resenting unfairness is also monkeys’ nature.

  nature(good-natured) ,熟悉的意思是“自然”,经常考的是“本性、性质、本质”。

  monkeys’ nature 猴子的天性

  preserve

  Feelings of righteous indignation, it seems, are not the preserve of people alone.

  preserve,熟悉的是用作动词时,“保护,保养,储存”,但在作名词时,是“专有领域”。

  义愤的种种感觉似乎不是人独有的一种情感。

  weigh

  Female capuchin monkeys were chosen for the research most probably because they are more inclined to weigh what they get.

  weigh,动词,“称重”,考研多是引申意思,“掂量,权衡”。

  雌性卷尾猴被选为研究对象,很可能是因为它们更倾向于权衡所得。

  掌握真题词汇

  以2005年第1篇阅读文章为例,正文423个单词,题干+选项180个单词,共计603个单词。一般来说,考生要在1分钟读100个单词,前提当然是要对这些单词了如指掌。

  从这篇文章中挑出38个单词,如果都认识,那你的英语水平估计在75分以上,如果大部分不认识,那么你的英语还有很遥远的路要走。

  vanish

  slack

  outrage

  underlying

  assumption

  grievance(grieve)

  cute

  good-natured

  creature

  readily

  counterpart

  tend

  characteristics

  candidate

  token

  slice

  cucumber

  adjoin

  Chamber

  observe

  luxury

  reluctant

  mere

  toss

  presence

  induce

  resentment(resent)

  species

  righteous

  indignation

  preserve

  reward

  ancestor

  justify

  temperament

  generous

  companion

  eventually

  例子中只有38个单词,而整篇文章有423个单词,只有全部掌握,文章才能真正读懂。

  理解语块概念

  语块,即语言的预制板。摩天大楼是因为预制板的排列组合才能拔地而起,一砖一瓦无法快速建成高楼大厦。语言也是如此,如果掌握的单词孤零零散落一地,没有语言预制板概念,是学不好英语的。

  (fat) pay rise

  have reputation for

  all too (2004.4)

  with the (underlying) assumption that...

  finely developed

  above all

  a piece of

  a slice of

  exchange A for B

  in return for

  markedly different

  in exchange for

  hand over

  induce resentment

  in the wild

  righteous indignation

  abundantly clear

  stems from(evolve from)

  as yet (2004.3)

  pose a contrast

  justify an assumption

  make a comparison

  explain a phenomenon

  slack rivals

  resent unfairness

  jealous of

  no (...) other than (2006.2)

  develop emotions

  be inclined to (2008.1)

  attentive to

  语块的具体使用:

  “MY BOSS hires people with the assumption that we all know our jobs," says a woman who works for a small firm.

  But from the very beginning, Android was written with the assumption that one day everyone would use their smartphones as their primary Internet device.

  The playgoers go to no other places in town than the theater.(2006, Text 2)

  语块不仅仅指固定短语,而是指更广泛的形容词修饰名词,副词修饰动词,副词修饰形容词等概念。掌握了这些,我们才能在平时复习中使巧劲。

  掌握同义替换

  英语中常用同义词、近义词、上义词、下义词、小概念代替大概念、大概念泛指小概念等考查同义替换。

  ① creatures / animals / capuchin monkeys / capuchins / species

  ② In the world of capuchins, grapes are more preferable to cucumbers.

  → The monkeys prefer grapes to cucumbers.

  ③ They pay closer attention to the value of their “goods and services” .

  → They are more inclined to weigh what they get.

  ④ 第24题:正话反说

  Such co-operation is likely to be stable only when each animal feels it is not being cheated.

  → Dr. Brosnan and Dr. de Waal have eventually found in their study that the monkeys will not be co-operative if feeling cheated.

  同义替换能让语言变得丰富多彩,所以除了用来练习阅读理解,还可以将其用在作文中,也就是你在做阅读的同时也在学写作,通过这种思路复习,可以事半功倍。

  到这里,相信同学们对考研英语的词义理解有了概念。如果可以认真完成一篇真题文章,你就能一次收获38个单词,30个语块,慢慢积累的过程,就是“爬山”的过程。

  第二座大山:长难句分析

  知其然知其所以然,我们从源头讲讲长难句。

  英语长难句的标准如何界定

  美国Rudolf Flesch博士在1946年曾对英语句子长度与文体的关系作过如下数字统计:

  Very easy(easy prose,mostly dialogue):8 words or less

  Easy:11 words

  Fairly easy:14 words

  Standard(average reader):17 words

  Fairly difficult(literary English):21 words

  Difficult:25 words

  Very difficult(scientific English):30 words or more

  当一个句子有25个单词时,属于困难,当有30+单词时,属于非常困难,且一般多是科技文献。考研英语的目的恰恰就是考查学生能否顺利查阅资料文献,能否顺畅表达研究成果。所以考研英语中长难句大量出现,是三座大山中最难跨越的一座。

  英语长难句的现象从何而来

  中文句子,一般多是像竹节一样的简短句,而英语造句主要使用“楼房建筑法”,像盖楼房一样,一层盖一层,一环套一环,渐渐摩天大楼就建起来了。

  当我们把中文翻译成英文时,要像盖楼一样,将一个个短句子排列组合成一个长句,做到“化零为整”。而当英文翻译成中文时,要破句重组给句子“松绑”,做到“化整为零”。

  因此做英译汉时,要学会拆分句子,多用短句,判卷老师看到卷面清爽,合乎中文表达习惯,翻译意思到位,不会不给分。

  具体长难句分析

  下面从2005年第1篇阅读文章中选取的4个长难句的具体例子。

  1.Such behaviour is regarded as “all too human,” with the underlying assumption that other animals would not be capable of this finely developed sense of grievance.(26 words,第一段)

  underlying “潜在的”

  with the underlying assumption that 语块,“潜台词是…,言下之意是…”

  grievance grieve派生词,“愤愤不平”

  2.However, when two monkeys were placed in separate but adjoining chambers, so that each could observe what the other was getting in return for its rock, their behaviour became markedly different.(31 words,第二段)

  when 从句

  so that 从句

  what 从句

  3.And if one received a grape without having to provide her token in exchange at all, the other either tossed her own token at the researcher or out of the chamber, or refused to accept the slice of cucumber.(39 words,第四段)

  4.However, whether such a sense of fairness evolved independently in capuchins and humans, or whether it stems from the common ancestor that the species had 35 million years ago, is, as yet, an unanswered question.(35 words,第五段)

  分析步骤:第一步,分析结构;第二步,成分切分;第三步,词义推敲;第四步,检查核对,最终达到中英文理解完全对等的状态。

  长难句之省略句

  简单句和并列句一般不构成难度,不再赘述,看看比较有难度的省略句。

  第一段 第2句

  (Everybody loves a fat pay rise.) Yet pleasure at your own (pay rise) can vanish if you learn that a colleague has been given a bigger one.

  第24题 C和D选项

  [C] Dr. Brosnan and Dr. de Waal have eventually found in their study that the monkeys will not be co-operative if (the monkeys) feeling cheated.

  [D] Dr. Brosnan and Dr. de Waal have eventually found in their study that the monkeys are unhappy when (the monkeys) separated from others.

  有输入才会有输出,当你英文读多了看多了,就会知道句子中省略了哪些内容。

  本着物尽其用的原则,其实一道题可以从不同角度来分析并有所收获。比如练习长难句,同学们可以在阅读理解中自己画长难句,根据英译汉标准翻译为中文。当翻译的句子足够多,长难句自然而然就被攻克了。

  第三座大山:语篇结构把握

  最后是第三座大山,语篇结构把握。类似数学中点动成线,线动成面,面动成体,英语是单词构成语块,语块构成语句,语句构成语段,语段构成语篇。分析过词义、语块、语句后,我们来看语段和语篇。

  语段中的关键词汇和句子

  第1段:转折/对比

  Everybody loves a fat pay rise. Yet pleasure at your own can vanish if you learn that a colleague has been given a bigger one. Indeed, if he has a reputation for slacking, you might even be outraged. Such behaviour is regarded as “all too human,” with the underlying assumption that other animals would not be capable of this finely developed sense of grievance. But a study by Sarah Brosnan and Frans de Waal of Emory University in Atlanta, Georgia, which has just been published in Nature, suggests that it is all too monkey, as well.

  人人都喜欢工资暴涨。但是假如你得知你同事的工资涨得比你还多,你的那份高兴劲儿就会烟消云散。的确,如果他在大家眼里是个懒散的人,你甚至会勃然大怒。这种行为被认为是“人之常情”,言下之意是说其他动物不会有愤愤不平这种复杂的情感。但是,佐治亚州亚特兰大市Emory大学的两位学者Sarah Brosnan和Frans de Waal刚刚在《自然》杂志上发表的研究成果表明这也是“猴之常情”。

  有两个细节要注意下。第一,考研英语基本都是科技文献资料,经常会引证一些科研专家或机构的研究结论,具体介绍研究出处的内容基本上可以忽略不看,只看结论就行。

  第二,考研英语的阅读理解文章基本都是报刊文章,报刊文章最大特点就是开门见山,一般会在第一段,最晚第二段,把文章核心内容抛出来,因此第一段非常非常关键。

  第2-5段:Topic Sentence + Development(主题句+拓展)

  (第2段)

  The researchers studied the behaviour of female brown capuchin monkeys. They look cute. They are good-natured, co-operative creatures, and they share their food readily. Above all, like their female human counterparts, they tend to pay much closer attention to the value of “goods and services” than males.

  研究人员对两只棕色的雌性南美卷尾猴进行了研究。它们样子很可爱,性情温和,喜欢合作,乐于分享食物。最重要的是,像人类中的女性一样,它们比公猴更倾向于关心“货物和服务”的价值。

  (第3段)

  Such characteristics make them perfect candidates for Dr. Brosnan’s and Dr. de Waal’s study. The researchers spent two years teaching their monkeys to exchange tokens for food. Normally, the monkeys were happy enough to exchange pieces of rock for slices of cucumber. However, when two monkeys were placed in separate but adjoining chambers, so that each could observe what the other was getting in return for its rock, their behaviour became markedly different.

  正是由于这些特点,它们才成了Brosnan和de Waal博士的最佳研究对象。研究人员花了两年时间教这两只猴子如何用东西交换食物。一般情况下,猴子们会很高兴用石块换取黄瓜片儿。但是当两只猴子被关在相邻的两间独立屋子、让它们能互相看到对方用石块交换到什么物品时,它们的表现就明显不一样了。

  (第4段)

  In the world of capuchins, grapes are luxury goods (and much preferable to cucumbers). So when one monkey was handed a grape in exchange for her token, the second was reluctant to hand hers over for a mere piece of cucumber. And if one received a grape without having to provide her token in exchange at all, the other either tossed her own token at the researcher or out of the chamber, or refused to accept the slice of cucumber. Indeed, the mere presence of a grape in the other chamber (without an actual monkey to eat it) was enough to induce resentment in a female capuchin.

  (第5段)

  The researchers suggest that capuchin monkeys, like humans, are guided by social emotions. In the wild, they are a co-operative, group-living species. Such co-operation is likely to be stable only when each animal feels it is not being cheated. Feelings of righteous indignation, it seems, are not the preserve of people alone. Refusing a lesser reward completely makes these feelings abundantly clear to other members of the group. However, whether such a sense of fairness evolved independently in capuchins and humans, or whether it stems from the common ancestor that the species had 35 million years ago, is, as yet, an unanswered question.

  主题句+拓展,是英文中经典的段落构造,很直接。主题句一出来,后面一大段就都是围绕着主题句展开的。建议同学们有个3-5分钟的碎片时间就看一个段落,可以渐渐产生共识并形成习惯。

  语篇结构把握

  以上举的例子基本都来自2005年第1篇文章,出处是The Economist(《经济学人》),2003.9.18,标题“Fair and Square”(公平与公正)。

  但在考场上,文章不会标明出处与标题,在选用时也会本着对所有专业考生都公平的原则,不偏向某个特定专业,从而选用一般性文章,所以同学们也“单纯”一点,不预设立场,将自己放在真空中做题,仅立足文章本身,把握写作目的。

  这篇文章的结构还有一个明显特点——首尾呼应。第一段见上文,讲了“人之常情,猴之常情”。最后一句如下,讲“人类和卷尾猴的公平感是各自独立进化的,还是从共同祖先那里遗传的,目前还没有答案。”构成首尾呼应。

  However, whether such a sense of fairness evolved independently in capuchins and humans, or whether it stems from the common ancestor that the species had 35 million years ago, is, as yet, an unanswered question.

推荐阅读:

深度解析考研英语历年真题长难句(下)

深度解析考研英语历年真题长难句(上)

雅思听力技巧“抢分”三法则

考研英语阅读高分策略!(下)

好轻松考研 了解更多>

好轻松考研专注于国内大学生高端考研培训。以“高能高分”为教育理念,倡导考生遵循学习的基本规律,稳扎稳打,以轻松的心态来学习。好轻松考研以“学术、励志、激情”为教学风格,倡导教师学术过硬,注重鼓励引导,充满激情的为考生授课。好轻松考研以独创英语学习领域 4R 个性化培训为服务体系,确保考生达成理想的学习效果。

考研名师团 更多师资 >

陈采霞老师

新航道好轻松考研首席学术专家。上世纪八十年代北京师范大学翻译 学硕士,曾任国际关系学院副教授,有 30 多年的英语教学与翻译经验, 曾多次被评为优秀教师;出版著作与译作 10 多部;1997 年开始从事 考研培训,对考研英语有深入独到的研究,并曾多次参加全国硕士研 究生英语试卷阅卷工作;独创考研英语“四步定位翻译法”、“词汇四通 记忆法”等,著有《考研英语十年真题点石成金》《考研英语核心词汇 笔记》《考研英语英译汉四步定位翻译法》等畅销书。

免费试听课
广州 深圳 佛山 其他
英语 政治 数学 考研留学